Construction dates from the XIIth, XIIIth and XVth centuries. The land belonged to the Abbey of Niedersmunster. 1198-1199, the Staufen vassals grow and they erect fortresses on land they do not own. 1200, the Abbess of Sainte-Odile consents to sell the parcel of land on which the castle is built. Its at the start of the XIIIth century that this castle would be built by Conrad de Landsberg to provide defence for the abbeys of Mont Sainte-Odile, Niedermunster, Truttenhausen and Andlau.
In 1262 they fight alongside the Bishop Walter of Geroldseck in a fight with the city of Strasbourg and they are taken prisoner. In 1322, the Lords of Landsberg and Siegfried de Oberkirch allied with the city of Strasbourg and put their Castle and the town of Niedernai at the disposal of the Bishop. 1413, the Knight Ottemann de Landsberg sells half of the castle to count Palatine Louis de Barbu. and in 1414, Jean of Landsberg gives him the other half. The Palatine is sole master of the fortress.
To 1456, the Palatine passes Landsberg Castle and the lordship of Barr to Jean de Uttenheim and Henri Beger. At that time the fortress was in poor condition. 1464, a chaplain is attached to the castle chapel. In 1504, Maximilien d’Autriche (Habsbourg) puts his mark on Landsberg. It is likely that Landsberg was destroyed during the thirty years war (1618 to 1648).